Tuesday, 22 July 2014

Class XI History Assignment( Term-I)

Chapter -1
1.      What are the sources available to understand the history of Early Humans?             2
2.      How was the Neanderthal man’s skull discovered?                                                   2
3.      Explain the story of human evolution from 36 MYA to Modern period.                  5
4.      Explain positive feedback mechanism.                                                                       5
5.      Explain the Replacement model and regional continuity model theories to
understand the centre of human origin.                                                                      5
6.      How did early humans obtain food?                                                                          5
7.      How did early humans make tools?                                                                            5
8.      Explain early humans’ patterns of residence.                                                             5
9.      Explain early humans patterns Language and art in five points.                                5
10.  Explain any two differences between hunter gatherer societies of past and present.            5
11.  Explain some of the developments which took place between 10000 BCE and
4500 BCE.                                                                                                                  5
12.  What are the sources available to understand the history of Mesopotamia?              2
13.   Explain the Mesopotamian geography.                                                                      5
14.  Explain the system, development and uses of writing in Mesopotamia?       4+3+3=10
15.  Explain the social life of people of Ur in five points.                                                 5
16.  Explain the social life of people of Mari in five points.                                              5
17.  Explain the legacy of Mathematics, engineering, astronomy and schooling in Mesopotamia?                                                                                                                      5
18.  Explain the construction and maintenance of temples in the southern Mesopotamia.5
19.  Explain the role of rulers in construction and maintenance of temples in the southern Mesopotamia.                                                                                                                      5
20.  Explain the significance of urbanism and movement of goods in Mesopotamia.      5
21.  Explain some of the superstitions practiced by Mesopotamians.                               2

Print culture and the World

Print Culture and the Modern World

How was the imperial state of China the majorproducer of printed materials?.

1.      China possessed a huge bureaucraticsystem which recruited its personnel through civil serviceexaminations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state.
2.      From thesixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went upand that increased the volume of print.
3.      As urban culture bloomed in China, theuses of print diversified. Reading increasingly became a leisure activity in cities. The new readership liked fictional narratives, poetry,  autobiographies and romantic plays.
4.      Print was no longer used just by scholar officials but also by Merchants who used print in their everyday life, as they collectedtrade information.
5.      Rich women began to read, and many women beganpublishing their poetry and plays. Wives of scholar-officials publishedtheir works and courtesans wrote about their lives.

Why did Shanghai become the hub of the new print culture?

1.      As Western powers established theiroutposts in China Western style schools were established.
2.      Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were importedin the late nineteenth century
3.      Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the Western-style schools.

Development of Print in Japan

1.      Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printingtechnology into Japan around AD 768-770.
2.      The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheetsof text and woodcut illustrations.
3.      Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and paper money with the help of woodblock printing technology.
4.      In medieval Japan,  poets andprose writers regularly published books and those books were cheapand abundant.
5.      Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices at Edo (Tokyo). Libraries and bookstores were packed withhand-printed material of various types – books on women, musicalinstruments, calculations, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, properetiquette, cooking and famous places.

The production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfythe ever-increasing demand for books.

1.      Copying was an expensive, laborious and time-consuming business.
2.      Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily.
3.      Their circulation therefore remained limited. There was a great need for even quicker and cheaperreproduction of texts.

How did Gutenberg develop the Printing Press?

1.      Gutenberg (from his childhood) had seen wine and olivepresses.
2.       He learnt the art of polishing stones.
3.      He learnt the art of making jewel and became amaster goldsmith.
4.      He also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets.
5.      Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his printing machine. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took threeyears to produce them.

The new technology did not entirely displace the existing art ofproducing books by hand.

1.      Printed books at first closely resembled the writtenmanuscripts in appearance and layout. The metal letters imitated theornamental handwritten styles.
2.      Borders were illuminated by handwith foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
3.      In thebooks printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank onthe printed page. Each purchaser could choose the design and decideon the painting school that would do the illustrations.

The Print Revolution and Its Impact

Print revolution was a newway of producing books which transformed the lives of people,changed their relationship to information and knowledge, and withinstitutions and authorities. It opened up new ways of looking at things.
1.      Earlier, readingwas restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral culture. People collectivelyheard a story, or saw a performance. Now books could reach out to wider sectionsof people. If earlier there was a hearing public, now a reading publiccame into being.
2.      Books could be read only bythe literate, and the rates of literacy in most European countrieswere very low. So printers began publishing popular ballads andfolk tales, and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures to make everyone to read books.
3.      Print created the possibility of wide circulation ofideas, and introduced a new world of debate anddiscussion. Even those who disagreed withestablished authorities could now print and circulatetheir ideas.
4.      Not everyone welcomed the printed book, and those who did also had fears about it. They feared that ifthere was no control over what was printed andread then rebellious and irreligious thoughts mightspread. If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’literature would be destroyed.
5.      Menocchio, a miller in Italy, began to read books that were available in his locality. He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church. He was persecuted and the Church imposedsevere controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintainan Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.

Protestant Reformation.

1.      The religious reformer Martin Luther wroteNinety Five Theses criticising many of the practicesand rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printedcopy of this was posted on a church door and he challengedthe Church to debate with his ideas.
2.      Luther’s writings were immediatelyreproduced in vast numbers and read widely. This lead to a divisionwithin the Church and to the beginning of the ProtestantReformation.
3.      Deeply grateful to print, Luther said, ‘Printing is theultimate gift of God and the greatest one.’ Several scholars, in fact, think that print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere andhelped spread the new ideas that led to the Reformation.

Why did people want to read books in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?

1.       Churches of different sizesset up schools in villages, carrying literacy to peasants and artisans.By the end of the eighteenth century, in some parts of Europeliteracy rates were as high as 60 to 80 per cent. As literacy and schoolsspread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
2.      Booksellers employed pedlars who roamed around villages, carrying little books for sale. There were ritualcalendars, along with ballads and folktales. In England, penny chapbookswere carried by petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold for a penny, so that even the poorcould buy them.
3.      The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century, combining information about current affairs with entertainment.Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade.
4.      Similarly, the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became moreaccessible to the common people. Ancient and medieval scientific and philosophical texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagramswere widely printed.
5.      By the mid-eighteenth century, manybelieved that books would spread progress and enlightenment, change the world and liberate society fromdespotismand tyranny. Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth-centuryFrance, declared: ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine ofprogress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotismaway.’ In many of Mercier’s novels, the heroes are transformed byacts of reading.

How did print culture create the conditionswithin which French Revolution occurred?
Why do some historians think that print culture created the basis for the French Revolution?

1.      Print popularised the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.Collectively, their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism. Those whoread these books saw the world through new eyes, eyes that werequestioning, critical and rational.
2.      Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. Allvalues, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by apublic that had become aware of the power of reason, and recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs.
3.      By the 1780s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. In the process, it raisedquestions about the existing social order. Cartoons and caricaturestypically suggested that the monarchy remained absorbed only insensual pleasures while the common people suffered immensehardships.

How did mass literacy in Europe bring in large numbers of new readers among children,women and workers?

1.      As primary education became compulsory from the latenineteenth century, children became an important categoryof readers. Children’s press published new works as well as old fairy talesand folk tales. The Grimm Brothers in Germany spent yearscompiling traditional folk tales gathered from peasants.
2.      Women became important as readers as well as writers. Pennymagazines were especially meant for women, aswere manuals teaching proper behaviour and housekeeping. Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot became important women writers in defining a newtype of woman: a person with will, strength of personality,determination and the power to think.
3.      Lending libraries had been in existence from the seventeenth centuryonwards. In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in Englandbecame instruments for educating white-collar workers, artisansand lower-middle-class people. Sometimes, self-educated workingclass people wrote for themselves.

What were a series of newinnovations in printing technology in the nineteenth century?

1.      Richard M. Hoe of New York had perfected the power-drivencylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour.This press was particularly useful for printing newspapers.
2.       In thelate nineteenth century, the offset press was developed which couldprint up to six colours at a time.
3.      From the turn of the twentiethcentury, electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations.
4.      A series of other developments followed. Methods of feeding paperimproved, the quality of plates became better.
5.      Automatic paper reelsand photoelectric controls of the colour register were also introduced in the same period.

What were the new strategies followed by the Printers and publishersto sell their products?

1.       Nineteenth-century periodicals serialized important novels, which gave birth to a particular way of writingnovels.
2.       In England, popular works were sold incheap series, called the Shilling Series.
3.      The dust cover or thebook jacket is also a twentieth-century innovation.

What were the disadvantages in making and using manuscripts in India?

1.      Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile.
2.      They hadto be handled carefully, and they could not be read easily.
3.      Thescript was written in different styles. Somanuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.

Role of press in Religious Reform and Public Debates in India

1.      From the early nineteenth century different groups confronted thechanges happening within colonial society in different ways some criticised existing practices and campaigned forreform, while others countered the arguments of reformers. Thesedebates were carried out in public and in print.
2.      This was a time of intense controversies between social and religiousreformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. InBengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments.
3.      In north India, the ulamas were deeply anxious about the collapseof Muslim dynasties. To counterthis, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian andUrdu translations of holy scriptures, and printed religiousnewspapers and tracts and published thousands upon thousands of fatwastelling Muslimreaders how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives.
4.      Hindus published Holy Scriptures like the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas in vernacular languages. Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars.
5.      Print not only stimulated the publication of conflicting opinionsamongst communities, but also connected communities and peoplein different parts of India. Newspapers conveyed news from oneplace to another, creating pan-Indian identities.

New Forms of Publication introduced in India in the 19th century

1.      The novel, a literary firm which had developed in Europe, ideallycatered to this need. It soon acquired distinctively Indian forms andstyles. For readers, it opened up new worlds of experience, andgave a vivid sense of the diversity of human lives.
2.      Other new literary forms also entered the world of reading were lyrics, short stories, essays about social and political matters. Indifferent ways, they reinforced the new emphasis on human livesand intimate feelings, about the political and social rules that shapedsuch things.
3.      By the end of the nineteenth century, a new visualculture was taking shape. Visual images were reproduced in multiple copies. Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for masscirculation.
4.      By the 1870s, caricatures and cartoons were beingpublished in journals and newspapers, commentingon social and political issues. Some caricaturesridiculed the educated Indians’ fascination withWestern tastes and clothes, while others expressedthe fear of social change.

Women and Print in India

1.      Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances. Liberal husbands and fathersbegan educating their womenfolk at home, and sent them to schoolswhen women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns
2.      Rashsundari Debi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read inthe secrecy of her kitchen. Later, she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876.Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women – about how women wereimprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served.
3.      In the1880s, in present-day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable livesof upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows.
4.       Inthe early twentieth century, journals, written for and sometimesedited by women, became extremely popular. They discussedissues like women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriageand the national movement.
5.      In Punjab folk literature was widely printed fromthe early twentieth century. Ram Chaddha published the fast-selling Istri DharmVichar to teach women how to be obedient wives.

Print and the Poor People in India

1.      Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century in Madras. Public libraries were set up from the earlytwentieth century, expanding the access to books. These libraries werelocated mostly in cities and towns, and at times in prosperous villages.
2.      From the late nineteenth century, issues of caste discrimination began tobe written about in many printed tracts and essays. Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements, wrote about theinjustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri(1871).
3.       In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naickerin Madras, better known as Periyar, wrote powerfully on caste andtheir writings were read by people all over India.
4.      Workers in factories were too overworked and lacked the education towrite much about their experiences. But Kashibaba, a Kanpur millworker, wrote and published ChhoteAur Bade KaSawalin 1938 toshow the links between caste and class exploitation.
5.      The poems ofanother Kanpur millworker, who wrote under the name of Sudarshan Chakr between 1935 and 1955, were brought together and publishedin a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan. By the 1930s, Bangalore cottonmillworkers set up libraries to educate themselves, following the exampleof Bombay workers.

Print and Censorship in India

1.      East India Company’s early measures tocontrol printed matter were directed against English Editors like James Augustus Hickey who were critical of Company misrule and hated the actions ofparticular Company officers. The Company was worried for suchcriticisms.
2.      By the 1820s, the Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulationsto control press freedom and the Company began encouragingpublication of newspapers that would celebrate British rule.
3.      In 1835,faced with urgent petitions by editors of English and vernacularnewspapers, Governor-General Bentinck agreed to revise press laws.Thomas Macaulay, a liberal colonial official, formulated new rulesthat restored the earlier freedoms for press.
4.      After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of the presschanged. Enraged Englishmen demanded a clamp down on the‘native’ press. In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed. It provided the governmentwith extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacularpress.
5.      From now on the government kept regular track of thevernacular newspapers published in different provinces. When areport was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned, and ifthe warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and theprinting machinery confiscated.

Role of Press in Freedom Struggle in India

1.      Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbersin all parts of India. They reported on colonial misrule andencouraged nationalist activities.
2.      Attempts to throttle nationalistcriticism provoked militant protest. This in turn led to a renewedcycle of persecution and protests.
3.      When Punjab revolutionaries weredeported in 1907, BalgangadharTilak wrote with great sympathyabout them in his Kesari. This led to his imprisonment and led to widespread protests all over India.

Age of Industrialisation

The Age of Industrialisation


Even before factories began todot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scaleindustrial production for an international market by the village artisans and peasants. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto-industrialisation.

Why did merchants from the towns in Europe begin to move to the countryside in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to produce goods for International market?

1.       With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition ofcolonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goodsbegan growing. But merchants could not expand production withintowns.
2.      This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds werepowerful. These were associations of producers that trainedcraftspeople, maintained control over production, regulatedcompetition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people intothe trade.
3.      Rulers granted different guilds the monopolyright to produce and trade in specific products. It wastherefore difficult for new merchants to set upbusiness in towns. So they turned to the countryside.

Why did the poor peasants and artisans of the countryside begin working for merchants?

1.      This was the time when open fields and commons were disappearing.
2.      Cottagers and poor peasants could not gather firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw from the open fields and commons.
3.       Many peasants had tiny plots of land which could notprovide work for all members of the household. Sowhen merchants came around and offered advancesto produce goods for them, peasant householdseagerly agreed.

What were the results of proto-industrialisation?

1.      By working for the merchants, theycould remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their smallplots.
2.      Income from proto-industrial production supplemented theirshrinking income from cultivation.
3.      It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.
4.      Within this system a close relationship developed between the townand the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the workwas done mostly in the countryside.

Explain the network of process of production during the proto-industrialisation

1.      Ginning- Separation of seeds from cotton
2.      Stapling- separation of cotton according to its fibre
3.      Spinning- making yarn( thread) out of cotton
4.      Weaving-making cloth out of yarn
5.      Fulling- gathering cloth by pleating
6.      Dyeing- colouring the cloth

In 1760 Britain was importing 2.5million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787this import soared to 22 million pounds. What were the changes associated with this development?

1.      A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacyof each step of the production process (carding, twisting andspinning, and rolling).
2.      They enhanced the output per worker, enablingeach worker to produce more, and they made possible theproduction of stronger threads and yarn.
3.      Then Richard Arkwrightcreated the cotton mill. But now, the costly new machines could bepurchased, set up and maintained in the mill. Within the mill all theprocesses were brought together under one roof and management.
4.      This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process,a watch over quality, and the regulation of labour, all of which hadbeen difficult to do when production was in the countryside.

How rapid was the process of industrialisation? Does industrialization mean only the growth of factory industries?

1.      The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton andmetals. Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s. After that with the expansion of railways the ironand steel industry became dynamic.
2.      The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries and only less than 20 percent of the total workforce was employed in technologicallyadvanced industrial sectors. Textile was a dynamic sector, but alarge portion of the output was within domestic units.
3.      The pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not setby steam-powered cotton or metal industries, but they did not remainentirely stagnant either. Seemingly ordinary and small innovationswere the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furnituremaking, and production of implements.
4.      Technological changes occurred slowly(What were the reasons for slow technological change?)

a.       New technology wasexpensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about usingit.
b.      The machines often broke down and repair was costly.
c.       Theywere not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
5.      James Watt improved thesteam engine, produced by New comen and Mathew Boulton manufactured thenew model. But for years he could find no buyers. At the beginningof the nineteenth century, there were no more than 321 steam enginesall over England. Of these, 80 werein cotton industries, nine in woolindustries, and the rest in mining,canal works and iron works.

Why did industrialists use human Labourinstead of Steam Power or machines?

1.      In Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poorpeasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in searchof jobs who are waiting for work.
2.      When there is plenty of labour, wages are low. So industrialists had no problem of labourshortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machineswhich required large capital investment.
3.      In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal. In all such industrieswhere production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.
4.      A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the marketwas often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
5.      In Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and thebourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand. Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class. They were betterfinished, individually produced, and carefully designed. Machine made

 Condition or Life of the industrial Workers in England in the 19th century

1.      The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers.As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundredstramped to the cities. The actual possibility of getting a job dependedon existing networks of friendship and kin relations.
2.      Many jobseekershad to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in nightshelters. Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by privateindividuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the PoorLaw authorities.
3.      Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periodswithout work. After the busy season was over, the poor were onthe streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter.
4.      When prices rose sharply during the prolongedNapoleonic War, the real value of what the workers earned fellsignificantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.
5.      At the best of times till the mid-nineteenth century,about 10 per cent of the urban population was extremely poor. Inperiods of economic slump, like the 1830s, the proportion ofunemployed went up to anything between 35 and 75 per cent indifferent regions.

Text book question --Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny

1.      Spinning Jenny wasdevised by James Hargreaves in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel a worker could set inmotion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time.
2.      The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introductionof new technology. When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning beganattacking the new machines.
3.      This conflict over the introduction ofthe jenny continued for a long time.

Industrialisation in the Colonies

The Age of Indian Textiles or Domination of India in international textile market

1.      Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods fromIndia dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons of finer varieties were produced in India.
2.      Bales of finetextiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, throughmountain passes and across deserts to Persia and Armenia. A vibrant sea trade operatedthrough the main pre-colonial ports- Surat, Masulipatam and Hoogly with Southeast Asia.
3.      A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in thisnetwork of export trade – financing production, carrying goodsand supplying exporters. Supply merchants linked the port towns tothe inland regions.

How was Indian’s network broken down by the European companies?

1.      The European companies gradually gained power – first securing permission, avariety of concessions and monopoly rightsto trade with India.
2.       This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat, Masulipatnam and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports fromthese ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earliertrade began drying up, and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
3.      Trade through the new ports- Calcutta, Bombay and Madras came tobe controlled by European companies, and was carried in Europeanships.

How did Europeans control on Indian ports affect the life of weavers and other artisans?
What were the life conditions of Indian weavers in the 18th century?

1.       The French, Dutch, English, Portuguese and local traders competed in the marketto secure woven cloth. So the weaver and supply merchantscould bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer.
2.      The Company appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examinethe quality of cloth. So weavers came under the control of Gomasthas.
3.      Company prevented weavers from dealing with otherbuyers. One way of doing this was through the system of advances.Those who took advances had tohand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could nottake it to any other trader.
4.      Manyweavers had small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated along with weaving. Now they had to lease out the land and devote all the family members ’time to weaving.
5.      In many weaving villages there were reports ofclashes between weavers and gomasthas. The new gomasthas were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and punished weavers for delaysin supply – often beating and flogging them.
6.      In many places weavers deserted villagesand migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they hadsome family relation. Over timemany weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshopsand taking to agricultural labour.

What was the new set of problems faced by cotton weavers in the 19th century?
In 1811-12piece-goods accounted for 33 per cent of India’s exports; by1850-51 it was no more than 3 percent.Why did this happen? What were its implications?

1.      English Industrialistspressurized the government to impose import duties on Indian textiles so thatManchester goods could sell in Britain without facing anycompetition from outside.
2.      At the same time industrialists persuadedthe East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indianmarkets as well.
3.      Cotton weavers in India thus faced two problems at the same time. Their export market collapsed and the local market shrank.
4.      European goods were produced by machines at lowercosts and they were so cheap that Indian weavers couldnot easily compete with them.
5.      When the AmericanCivil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off. Britain turned to India and raw cotton exports from India increased. The price of raw cotton shot up and weavers in Indiawere starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at high prices.

Coming Up of Factories in India

Name of the industrial centres in the 19th century India

Bombay, Calcutta,Kanpur, Ahmedabad and Madras.

Who set up the industries in the 19th century India?

Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jamsetjee Nusser wanjee Tata, Seth Hukumchand and
S.N. Birla (Grand Father of G.D Birla)

Where did the capital come from?

1.      Some indutrialists earned their capital through opium trade with China.
2.      Capital was accumulated through export of raw materials and food grains such as rawcotton, spices, wheat and indigo.

European Managing Agencies whichcontrolled a large sector of Indian industries.

Bird Heiglers& Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner& Co.
Where Did the Workers Come From? OR Who came to work in the mills?

1.      In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around.Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work.
2.      Over 50 per cent workers came from the neighbouring districts.
3.      Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled greatdistances from other states.

Who were Jobbers? How did they help job seekers?

1.       Industrialists usually employedan old and trusted workercalled jobber to get new recruits.
2.      He got peoplefrom his village for work.
3.      He ensured them jobs in Indistry.
4.      He helped them settle in the city.
5.      He provided them money in times of crisis.
6.      The jobber thereforebecame a person with some authority and power.
7.      He used to demand money and gifts for his favour and controlling the livesof workers.

The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth in India In the 20th century

1.      European Companies, which dominated industrial production in India established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheaprates from the colonial government.
2.      They invested in mining,indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily forexport trade and not for sale in India.
3.      The early cotton mills in India produced coarsecotton yarn (thread) rather than fabric. The yarn produced in Indian spinningmills was used by handloom weavers in India or exported to China.
What were the series of changes that affected the pattern of industrialisation in the twentieth century in India?

1.      The swadeshi movement gathered momentum in India. The nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreigncloth.
2.       Industrial groups organised themselves (Associations) to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protectionand grant other concessions.
3.      From 1906, the export ofIndian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese andJapanese mills flooded the Chinese market.So industrialists in India began shifting fromyarn to cloth production.

Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

1.      The First World War created a dramaticallynew situation. With British mills busy withwar production to meet the needs of thearmy, Manchester imports into Indiadeclined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vasthome market to supply.
2.      As the warprolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs such as  jute bags, clothfor army uniforms, tents and leather boots,horse and mule saddles and a host of otheritems.
3.      New factories were set up and oldones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed andeveryone was made to work longer hours. Over the war yearsindustrial production boomed.
4.      After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position inthe Indian market. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth fromBritain fell dramatically.
5.      Within the colonies, local industrialistsgradually consolidated their position, substituting foreignmanufactures and capturing the home market.

How did Small-scale Industries Predominate in India in the 20th century?
In the twentieth century, handloom cloth production expanded steadily between 1900 and 1940.How did this happen?

1.      This was partly because of technological changes. Handicrafts peopleadopt new technology if that helps them improve productionwithout excessively pushing up costs.
2.      By the 20th century we find weavers using looms with a fly shuttle.This increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
3.      (Fly shuttle – It is a mechanical device moved by means of ropes and pullies.It places the horizontal threads into the verticle threads in the weaving process)
4.      Certain groups of weavers produced coarse cloth,which was bought by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently in times of bad harvests and famines.
5.      Certain groups of weavers wove finer varieties. The demand for the finer varieties was more stable. The rich could buy these even when thepoor starved.

How did producers persuade the people to buy their goods?

1.      Producers persuaded new consumers through advertisements. Advertisements make products appeardesirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people andcreate new needs. They appeared in newspapers, magazines.
2.      When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they putlabels on the cloth bundles(MADE IN MANCHESTER). The label was needed to make the placeof manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.The label was also to be a mark of quality.
3.      But labels not only carried words and texts but also carriedimages and were very often beautifully illustrated. Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on theselabels. It was as if the association with gods gave divine approval tothe goods being sold.
4.      By the late19th century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Calendars were used even by people who could not read. They werehung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes to see the advertisements.
5.      The images of gods, figures of important personalities, of emperors, nawabs and national leaders adorned advertisement and calendars. Themessage very often seemed to say: if you respect the royal figure,then respect (buy) this product.


1.      Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
2.      How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles fromIndian weavers?
3.      Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
4.      How were the products advertised and marketed?
5.      How did Small-scale Industries Predominate in India in the 20th century?
6.      What were the series of changes that affected the pattern of industrialisation in the twentieth century in India?
7.       Explain the following:
a)      Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
b)      In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employingpeasants and artisans within the villages.
c)      The port of Surat, Masulipatnam and Hoogly declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
d)     The East India Company appointed gomasthasto supervise weavers in India.
e)      What is meant by proto-industrialisation.